Sickle Cell Disease, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Sickle cell disease is blood disorders group inherited from person’s parents. The most common type of sickle cell disease is known as sickle cell anemia. Normally, our red blood cells are round and flexible, can move easily through your blood vessels. In sickle anemia these red cells become sticky and rigid and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These unshaped cells can stuck in small blood vessels, which can block or stuck and oxygen to parts of the body.
Sickle Cell Disease, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Sickle Cell Disease, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Forms of Sickle Cell Disease

  • Hemoglobin SS
  • Hemoglobin SC
  • Hemoglobin Sβ0 thalassemia
  • Hemoglobin Sβ+ thalassemia
  • Hemoglobin SD
  • Hemoglobin SE

Sickle cell disease causes

One of the biggest causes of sickle cell anemia is mutation in the genetics that tell body to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a red, iron-rich compound that gives red color to blood. Hemoglobin is also responsible for carrying oxygen from your lungs to all parts of the body. But in sickle cell anemia, the abnormal ratio of hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become sticky, rigid and misshapen. Sickle cell gene is inherited from generation to generation. It means father and mother both pass the defective form of the gene to a child.

Sickle Cell Trait Blood Type

When only one parent passes the sickle cell gene to the child, than that child will have the sickle cell trait. People who have sickle cell trait have one normal hemoglobin gene and one defective form of gene. They make both normal and sickle cell hemoglobin.

Sickle Cell Disease Symptoms

  • Problem of vision: Some people who are affected by sickle cell anemia experience vision problems. Tiny blood vessels that supply by your eyes may become plugged with sickle cell. This damages the retina of eyes- it is a portion of eye that processes visual images for us.
  • Problem in growth: Red blood cells are responsible growth of your body because it provides oxygen and nutrients you need for growth. If you have shortage of healthy red blood cells it can slow growth in teenagers, children and infants.
  • Infections: In our body spleen is an organ that fights infection. Sickle cell anemia can damage our spleen.
  • Episodes of Pain: Periodic episodes of pain also called crises are most common symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain starts when sickle- shaped red blood cells block the blood flow through the tiny blood vessels to your chest, abdomen and joints. You can also feel some pain in your bones also. Some people face only few episodes of pain whereas some face dozens episodes of pain in a year. Some form of pain you can experience by sickle cell anemia: Chest, Arms, Legs, Lower Back.

Sickle Cell Disease Treatment

  • Drink Water: If your body become dehydrated than it can increase risk of a sickle cell crisis. Drink more water throughout your day, making a goal about 10 glass of water a day.
  • Avoid exposure to extreme cold or heat can increase your risk of sickle cell.
  • Mostly there is less oxygen at higher altitudes, so before going on theses type of areas you may require supplemental oxygen to avoid triggering a sickle cell crisis.  

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