Weight Loss Surgery Types

Weight-loss (bariatric) surgery helps you to lose weight. It also reduces the risk of various medical problems that are caused by obesity. Bariatric surgery contributes to weight loss in two ways: First one is the restriction: This surgery is used to physically limit the amount of food the stomach can hold, which limits the number of calories you can eat. The second way is malabsorption: This surgery is used to shorten the part of the small intestine, which reduces the number of calories and nutrients the body absorbs.
Weight Loss Surgery Types
Weight Loss Surgery Types

Weight Loss Surgery Types

There is four common type of weight loss surgery:

1. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

In this surgery, a band containing an inflatable balloon is placed around the upper part of the stomach and fixed in place. This creates a small stomach pouch above the band with a very narrow opening to the rest of the stomach. A port is then placed under the skin of the abdomen. A tube connects the port to the band. By injecting or removing fluid through the port, the balloon can be inflated or deflated to adjust the size of the band. Gastric banding restricts the amount of food that your stomach can hold, so you feel full sooner, but it doesn't reduce the absorption of calories and nutrients.


2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

In this surgery type, a small pouch is created at the top of the stomach by the surgeon. This pouch is only part of the stomach that receives food. This pouch limits the amount that you can drink and eat at one time. The small intestine is cut into a short distance below the main stomach and connected to the new pouch created by the surgeon. The main part of the stomach, however, continues to make digestive juices. The portion of the intestine still attached to the main stomach is reattached farther down. This allows the digestive juices to flow to the small intestine. Because food now bypasses a portion of the small intestine, fewer nutrients and calories are absorbed.


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3. Sleeve gastrectomy

In this type of weight loss surgery, a part of the stomach is separated and then removed by the body. Now the remaining part of the stomach is formed into a tube-like structure. The reason for doing this is that: small stomach cannot hold as much food and also produces less of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, which may lessen your desire to eat. This surgery doesn’t affect the absorption of calories in the intestines.


4. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch

In this surgery the surgeon remove a large part of the stomach. The valve that releases food to the small intestine is left, along with the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. Then the surgeon closes off the middle section of the intestine and attaches the last part directly to the duodenum. This is the duodenal switch. The separated section of the intestine isn't removed from the body. Instead, it's reattached to the end of the intestine, allowing bile and pancreatic digestive juices to flow into this part of the intestine. This is the biliopancreatic diversion. As a result of these changes, food bypasses most of the small intestine, limiting the absorption of calories and nutrients. This, together with the smaller size of the stomach, leads to weight loss.
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